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PQQ (Pyrroloquinoline Quinone) for Mitochondria Biogenesis

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PQQ (Pyrroloquinoline Quinone) for Mitochondria Biogenesis

Postby Admin » 14 Jun 16 15:58


Here we talk about several nutrients that work alongside with PQQ although PQQ is fantastic on its own there are benefits from all we talk about here in this topic.

Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is a novel vitamin-like compound found in plant foods that is showing a wide range of benefits to brain and body function based upon preclinical studies and initial clinical evaluation.1 Although PQQ is not currently viewed as a vitamin, it is likely to be considered an essential nutrient in the future.

What exactly does PQQ do?

PQQ stimulates growth and serves as a cofactor for a special class of enzymes involved in cellular function including cellular growth, development, differentiation, and survival.1

PQQ is also as an extremely powerful antioxidant capable of catalyzing continuous cycling (the ability to perform repeated oxidation and reduction reactions) to a much greater degree compared to other antioxidants. For example, PQQ is able to carry out 20,000 catalytic conversions compared to only 4 for vitamin C.1,2

Are there any food sources of PQQ?

PQQ has been found in all plant foods analyzed to date.1 PQQ-rich foods include parsley, green peppers, kiwi fruit, papaya and tofu.3 These foods contain about 2-3 mcg per 100 grams. Green tea provides about the same amount per 4 oz serving.

Is PQQ an essential nutrient?

Based upon the current research there is no question that it plays a critical role in human nutrition.1,4 When PQQ is omitted from chemically defined diets in mammals it leads to growth impairment, compromised immune status, and abnormal reproductive function.5 The nutritional requirements of PQQ are probably in line with folic acid and biotin in terms of micrograms per day versus milligrams per day. Like essential nutrients, the immune system seems particularly sensitive to low levels of PQQ. With PQQ deprivation there are multiple defects in immune function and loss of white blood cells to respond properly.1

What is the most important function of PQQ?

One key action of PQQ involves a direct action on key enzymes involved in the energy producing compartments in our cells – the mitochondria. As a result PQQ improves energy production.1,6 In addition to PQQ’s powerful antioxidant effect protects against mitochondrial damage. But, PQQ not only protects mitochondria from oxidative stress—it also promotes the spontaneous generation of new mitochondria within aging cells, a process known as mitochondrial biogenesis or mitochondriogenesis.1,7,8 This effect is a “fountain of youth” for mitochondrial function.

What are the clinical uses of PQQ?

Given the nutritional importance and tremendous span of physiological effects of PQQ, there are considerable benefits in conditions that revolve around low mitochondrial function including in aging, many brain and neurological disease (e.g., Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease), and many other chronic degenerative disease. Current research has primarily focused on its ability to protect memory and cognition in both aging animals and humans. Here are some of the effects noted in the animal studies:

PQQ reverses cognitive impairment caused by chronic oxidative stress and improve performance on memory tests in animal models.1,9
PQQ supplementation stimulates the production and release of nerve growth factor.1,1
PQQ protects against the self-oxidation of the DJ-1 gene, an early step in the onset of Parkinson’s disease.1,11
PQQ protects brain cells against oxidative damage in models of strokes.1,12
PQQ blocks the formation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), a major source of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) that are so damaging to brain cells.1,13
PQQ protects against the likelihood of severe stroke in an experimental animal model for stroke.1,14
PQQ protects the brain against neurotoxicity induced by other powerful toxins, including mercury, glutamate, and oxidopamine (a potent neurotoxin used by scientists to induce Parkinsonism in laboratory animals).1,15,16
PQQ prevents development of alpha-synuclein, a protein associated with Parkinson’s disease.1,17
PQQ also protects nerve cells from the damaging effects of the beta-amyloid-protein linked with Alzheimer’s disease.

Has PQQ been studied in human clinical trials?

Yes, preliminary clinical studies are extremely encouraging and several larger clinical trials are currently either completed waiting publication or are in process.

In regards to improving brain function, while PQQ is somewhat effective on its own, when it is combined with a related compound well-known to all – coenzyme Q10 – even better results have been shown. This synergistic effect was first seen in animal studies and further demonstrated in a human double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted in Japan in 2007.19 In this study of 71 middle-aged and elderly people aged between 40-70, supplementation with 20 mg per day of PQQ resulted in improvements on tests of higher cognitive function compared to the placebo group, but in the group receiving 20 mg of PQQ along with 300 mg of CoQ10 the results were even more dramatic. PQQ and CoQ10 are both involved in mitochondrial energy production, so these results are not that surprising.

Does PQQ have to be used with CoQ10 to see results?

No, it is active on its own. In fact, in most people under 50 there may not be a need for simultaneous use of PQQ and CoQ10 unless the person is taking a drug like cholesterol-lowering statins that interfere with CoQ10 manufacture.

One human study used PQQ in 10 subjects (5 females, 5 males) the ages of 21–34 years. The subjects were given PQQ in a single dose (0.2 mg PQQ/kg) after which multiple measurements of plasma and urine PQQ levels and changes in antioxidant potential over a 48-hour period.20 Results indicated a significant increase in antioxidant potential even after this only one dosage. The same subjects were also given a daily dose of 0.3 mg PQQ/kg and had their blood measured for markers of inflammation (plasma C-reactive protein and interleukin (IL)-6 levels) and urinary metabolites related to energy metabolism before PQQ administration and 72 hours later.

PQQ supplementation resulted in significant decreases in the levels of the inflammatory markers of plasma C-reactive protein and IL-6. Furthermore, the changes in urinary metabolites consistent with enhanced mitochondria-related functions. The data are among the first to link systemic effects of PQQ in animals to corresponding effects in humans.

What is the proper dosage?

One question regarding PQQ is what is an effective dosage? Specifically, if the nutritional requirement of PQQ is likely less than 500 mcg daily why is the recommended dosage 10 to 20 mg? In order to get a measured response in mitochondrial function in adult animals there is the need to feed higher amounts of PQQ much like why only 8 to 15 mg of vitamin C might protect against the overt signs of scurvy, the recommended dietary allowance currently stands at 75 to 90 milligram per day (for adults, excluding pregnant and lactating women) for optimal function, and even higher amounts are required for clinical applications.

The current recommendation of 10 to 20 mg of PQQ daily is based upon the equivalent dose in animals has consistently improved various mitochondrial functions. There are also some clinical and observational studies that justify the dosage, especially the 20 mg dosage for enhancing memory.

Latest research for preventing buildup of sludge in the Arteries is described below, using three supplements together that work at mitochondria cell level to prevent oxidation.

N-acetyl cysteine and COQ10

N-acetyl cysteine comes from the amino acid L-cysteine. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. N-acetyl cysteine has many uses as medicine.

N-acetyl cysteine is used to counteract acetaminophen (Tylenol) and carbon monoxide poisoning. It is also used for chest pain (unstable angina), bile duct blockage in infants, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, Lou Gehrig’s disease), Alzheimer’s disease, allergic reactions to the anti-seizure drug phenytoin (Dilantin), and an eye infection called keratoconjunctivitis. It is also used for reducing levels of a type of cholesterol called lipoprotein (a), homocysteine levels (a possible risk factor for heart disease) and the risk of heart attack and stroke in patients with serious kidney disease.

What is CoQ10 used for?
Many claims are made about CoQ10. It is said to help heart failure, as well as cancer, muscular dystrophy, and periodontal disease. It is also said to boost energy and speed recovery from exercise. Some people take it to help reduce the effects certain medicines can have on the heart, muscles, and other organs.

PQQ Pyrroloquinoline Quinone

Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is a novel redox cofactor recently found in human milk. It has been reported to function as an essential nutrient, antioxidant and redox modulator in cell culture experiments and in animal models of human diseases. As mitochondria are particularly susceptible to oxidative damage we studied the antioxidant properties of PQQ in isolated rat liver mitochondria. PQQ was an effective antioxidant protecting mitochondria against oxidative stress-induced lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl formation and inactivation of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. In contrast, PQQ caused extensive cell death to cells in culture. This surprising effect was inhibited by catalase, and was shown to be due to the generation of hydrogen peroxide during the autoxidation of PQQ in culture medium. We conclude that the reactivities of PQQ are dependent on its environment and that it can act as an antioxidant or a pro-oxidant in different biological systems.


What is it? I’m talking about the mother of all antioxidants, the master detoxifier and maestro of the immune system: GLUTATHIONE (pronounced “gloota-thigh-own”).

The good news is that your body produces its own glutathione. The bad news is that poor diet, pollution, toxins, medications, stress, trauma, aging, infections and radiation all deplete your glutathione.

This leaves you susceptible to unrestrained cell disintegration from oxidative stress, free radicals, infections and cancer. And your liver gets overloaded and damaged, making it unable to do its job of detoxification.

In treating chronically ill patients with Functional Medicine for more than 10 years, I have discovered that glutathione deficiency is found in nearly all very ill patients. These include people with chronic fatigue syndrome, heart disease, cancer, chronic infections, autoimmune disease, diabetes, autism, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, arthritis, asthma, kidney problems, liver disease and more.

At first I thought that this was just a coincidental finding, but over the years I have come to realize that our ability to produce and maintain a high level of glutathione is critical to recovery from nearly all chronic illness — and to preventing disease and maintaining optimal health and performance. The authors of those 76,000 medical articles on glutathione I mentioned earlier have found the same thing!

So in today’s blog I want to explain what glutathione is, why it’s important and give you 9 tips that will help you optimize your glutathione levels, improve your detoxification system and protect help yourself from chronic illness.

What is Glutathione?

Glutathione is a very simple molecule that is produced naturally all the time in your body. It is a combination of three simple building blocks of protein or amino acids — cysteine, glycine and glutamine.

The secret of its power is the sulfur (SH) chemical groups it contains. Sulfur is a sticky, smelly molecule. It acts like fly paper and all the bad things in the body stick onto it, including free radicals and toxins like mercury and other heavy metals.

Normally glutathione is recycled in the body — except when the toxic load becomes too great. And that explains why we are in such trouble ...

In my practice, I test the genes involved in glutathione metabolism. These are the genes involved in producing enzymes that allow the body to create and recycle glutathione in the body. These genes have many names, such as GSTM1, GSTP1 and more.

These genes impaired in some people for a variety of important reasons. We humans evolved in a time before the 80,000 toxic industrial chemicals found in our environment today were introduced into our world, before electromagnetic radiation was everywhere and before we polluted our skies, lakes, rivers, oceans and teeth with mercury and lead.

That is why most people survived with the basic version of the genetic detoxification software encoded in our DNA, which is mediocre at ridding the body of toxins. At the time humans evolved we just didn’t need more. Who knew we would be poisoning ourselves and eating a processed, nutrient-depleted diet thousands of years later?

Because most of us didn’t require additional detoxification software, almost of half of the population now has a limited capacity to get rid of toxins. These people are missing GSTM1 function — one of the most important genes needed in the process of creating and recycling glutathione in the body.

Nearly all my very sick patients are missing this function. The one-third of our population that suffers from chronic disease is missing this essential gene. That includes me. Twenty years ago I became mercury poisoned and suffered from chronic fatigue syndrome due to this very problem. My GSTM1 function was inadequate and I didn’t produce enough glutathione as a result. Eventually, my body broke down and I became extremely ill ...

This is the same problem I see in so many of my patients. They are missing this critical gene and they descend into disease as a result. Let me explain how this happens ...

The Importance of Glutathione in Protecting Against Chronic Illness

Glutathione is critical for one simple reason: It recycles antioxidants. You see, dealing with free radicals is like handing off a hot potato. They get passed around from vitamin C to vitamin E to lipoic acid and then finally to glutathione which cools off the free radicals and recycles other antioxidants. After this happens, the body can “reduce” or regenerate another protective glutathione molecule and we are back in business.

However, problems occur when we are overwhelmed with too much oxidative stress or too many toxins. Then the glutathione becomes depleted and we can no longer protect ourselves against free radicals, infections, or cancer and we can’t get rid of toxins. This leads to further sickness and soon we are in the downward spiral of chronic illness.

But that’s not all. Glutathione is also critical in helping your immune system do its job of fighting infections and preventing cancer. That’s why studies show that it can help in the treatment of AIDS.(i)

Glutathione is also the most critical and integral part of your detoxification system. All the toxins stick onto glutathione, which then carries them into the bile and the stool — and out of your body.

And lastly, it also helps us reach peak mental and physical function. Research has shown that raised glutathione levels decrease muscle damage, reduce recovery time, increase strength and endurance and shift metabolism from fat production to muscle development.

If you are sick or old or are just not in peak shape, you likely have glutathione deficiency.
In fact, the top British medical journal, the Lancet, found the highest glutathione levels in healthy young people, lower levels in healthy elderly, lower still in sick elderly and the lowest of all in the hospitalized elderly. (ii)

Keeping yourself healthy, boosting your performance, preventing disease and aging well depends on keeping your glutathione levels high. I’ll say it again ... Glutathione is so important because it is responsible for keeping so many of the keys to UltraWellness optimized.

It is critical for immune function and controlling inflammation. It is the master detoxifier and the body’s main antioxidant, protecting our cells and making our energy metabolism run well.

And the good news is that you can do many things to increase this natural and critical molecule in your body. You can eat glutathione-boosting foods. You can exercise. And you can take glutathione-boosting supplements. Let’s review more specifics about each.

9 Tips to Optimize your Glutathione Levels

These 9 tips will help you improve your glutathione levels, improve your health, optimize your performance and live a long, healthy life.

Eat Foods that Support Glutathione Production

1. Consume sulfur-rich foods. The main ones in the diet are garlic, onions and the cruciferous vegetables (broccoli, kale, collards, cabbage, cauliflower, watercress, etc.).

2. Try bioactive whey protein. This is great source of cysteine and the amino acid building blocks for glutathione synthesis. As you know, I am not a big fan of dairy. But this is an exception — with a few warnings. The whey protein MUST be bioactive and made from non-denatured proteins (“denaturing” refers to the breakdown of the normal protein structure). Choose non-pasteurized and non-industrially produced milk that contains no pesticides, hormones, or antibiotics. Immunocal is a prescription bioactive non-denatured whey protein that is even listed in the Physician’s Desk Reference.

Exercise for Your Way to More Glutathione

3. Exercise boosts your glutathione levels and thereby helps boost your immune system, improve detoxification and enhance your body’s own antioxidant defenses. Start slow and build up to 30 minutes a day of vigorous aerobic exercise like walking or jogging, or play various sports. Strength training for 20 minutes 3 times a week is also helpful.

Take Glutathione Supporting Supplements

One would think it would be easy just to take glutathione as a pill, but the body digests protein — so you wouldn’t get the benefits if you did it this way. However, the production and recycling of glutathione in the body requires many different nutrients and you CAN take these. Here are the main supplements that need to be taken consistently to boost glutathione. Besides taking a multivitamin and fish oil, supporting my glutathione levels with these supplements is the most important thing I do every day for my personal health.

4. N-acetyl-cysteine. This has been used for years to help treat asthma and lung disease and to treat people with life-threatening liver failure from Tylenol overdose. In fact, I first learned about it in medical school while working in the emergency room. It is even given to prevent kidney damage from dyes used during x-ray studies.

5. Alpha lipoic acid. This is a close second to glutathione in importance in our cells and is involved in energy production, blood sugar control, brain health and detoxification. The body usually makes it, but given all the stresses we are under, we often become depleted.

6. Methylation nutrients (folate and vitamins B6 and B12). These are perhaps the most critical to keep the body producing glutathione. Methylation and the production and recycling of glutathione are the two most important biochemical functions in your body. Take folate (especially in the active form of 5 methyltetrahydrofolate), B6 (in active form of P5P) and B12 (in the active form of methylcobalamin).

7. Selenium. This important mineral helps the body recycle and produce more glutathione.

8. A family of antioxidants including vitamins C and E (in the form of mixed tocopherols), work together to recycle glutathione.

9. Milk thistle (silymarin) has long been used in liver disease and helps boost glutathione levels.

Know The Truth!
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